How does Arctic sea ice affect energy production in mid-latitudes?
The case study describes a cold spell in winter 2016-17 that some energy producers, interviewed in S2S4E, identified as a relevant event affecting their businesses. The cold spell was accompanied by record-breaking low precipitation and wind speed over parts of western Europe, increasing energy demand and reducing renewable power generation, which contributed to an energy-security risk situation in France. In this first case study, the APPLICATE project explores potential linkages of the event highlighted by energy producers with Arctic changes in sea ice. Once these linkages are well-established and understood, future forecasts of extremely low sea ice extent (that also relate with forecasts of electricity demand and power generation) could be potentially valuable for assessing the risk for European energy systems.
Is Svalbard prepared for extreme rainfall?
The APPLICATE project releases its second case study that describes an extreme precipitation event that occurred in Svalbard in November 2016. This event was responsible of several landslides and avalanches. We try to illustrate how a better understanding of weather and climate information could improve the preparedness of local populations to deal with events that can be catastrophic, keeping in mind that adaptations that settlements and the environment in Svalbard would demand could set the scene for the rest of the globe. At the same time, this case study also contributes to understanding the linkages between the Arctic and mid-latitudes.
The document is mainly addressed to decision-makers, especially those working in the areas of civil protection and preparedness (e.g. avalanche warnings, preparation for possible perils, adaptation measures implemented as response to a past event) and it can also be of interest for governmental bodies such as the Governor of Svalbard. In addition, it can be extended to other sectors including urban planning (e.g delimitation of risk zones for landslides and avalanches, wildlife protection (e.g. prediction of rain-on-snow events resulting in ice-encrusted pastures and reindeer mass starvation), agriculture (e.g. ice-encrusted crops and mould formation), tourism (e.g. planning of leisure activities like snow-mobile driving, dog-sledging, hiking, etc. and account for activity changes or cancellations) or health (e.g. psychological challenges coming with climate changes).